• Chemistry SOLs

    CH.1  The student will investigate and understand that experiments in which variables are measured, analyzed, and evaluated produce observations and verifiable data. Key concepts include

    1. a)designated laboratory techniques;
    2. b)safe use of chemicals and equipment;
    3. c)proper response to emergency situations;
    4. d)manipulation of multiple variables, using repeated trials;
    5. e)accurate recording, organization, and analysis of data through repeated trials;
    6. f)mathematical and procedural error analysis;
    7. g)mathematical manipulations including SI units, scientific notation, linear equations, graphing, ratio and proportion, significant digits, and dimensional analysis;
    8. h)use of appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware, for gathering data, communicating results, and using simulations to model concepts;
    9. i)construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint; and
    10. j)the use of current applications to reinforce chemistry concepts.


    CH.2  The student will investigate and understand that the placement of elements on the periodic table is a function of their atomic structure. The periodic table is a tool used for the investigations of

    1. a)average atomic mass, mass number, and atomic number;
    2. b)isotopes, half lives, and radioactive decay;
    3. c)mass and charge characteristics of subatomic particles;
    4. d)families or groups;
    5. e)periods;
    6. f)trends including atomic radii, electronegativity, shielding effect, and ionization energy;
    7. g)electron configurations, valence electrons, and oxidation numbers;
    8. h)chemical and physical properties; and
    9. i)historical and quantum models.


    CH.3 The student will investigate and understand how conservation of energy and matter is expressed in chemical formulas and balanced equations. Key concepts include

    1. a)nomenclature;
    2. b)balancing chemical equations;
    3. c)writing chemical formulas;
    4. d)bonding types;
    5. e)reaction types; and
    6. f)reaction rates, kinetics, and equilibrium.


    CH.4 The student will investigate and understand that chemical quantities are based on molar relationships. Key concepts include

    1. a)Avogadro’s principle and molar volume;
    2. b)stoichiometric relationships;
    3. c)solution concentrations; and
    4. d)acid/base theory; strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes; dissociation and ionization; pH and pOH; and the titration process.


    CH.5  The student will investigate and understand that the phases of matter are explained by kinetic theory and forces of attraction between particles. Key concepts include

    1. a)pressure, temperature, and volume;
    2. b)partial pressure and gas laws;
    3. c)vapor pressure;
    4. d)phase changes;
    5. e)molar heats of fusion and vaporization;
    6. f)specific heat capacity; and
    7. g)colligative properties.


    CH.6  The student will investigate and understand how basic chemical properties relate to organic chemistry and biochemistry.  Key concepts include

    1. a)unique properties of carbon that allow multi-carbon compounds;  and
    2. b)uses in pharmaceuticals and genetics, petrochemicals, plastics, and food.