CH.1 The student will investigate and understand that experiments in which variables are measured, analyzed, and evaluated produce observations and verifiable data. Key concepts include
- a)designated laboratory techniques;
- b)safe use of chemicals and equipment;
- c)proper response to emergency situations;
- d)manipulation of multiple variables, using repeated trials;
- e)accurate recording, organization, and analysis of data through repeated trials;
- f)mathematical and procedural error analysis;
- g)mathematical manipulations including SI units, scientific notation, linear equations, graphing, ratio and proportion, significant digits, and dimensional analysis;
- h)use of appropriate technology including computers, graphing calculators, and probeware, for gathering data, communicating results, and using simulations to model concepts;
- i)construction and defense of a scientific viewpoint; and
- j)the use of current applications to reinforce chemistry concepts.
CH.2 The student will investigate and understand that the placement of elements on the periodic table is a function of their atomic structure. The periodic table is a tool used for the investigations of
- a)average atomic mass, mass number, and atomic number;
- b)isotopes, half lives, and radioactive decay;
- c)mass and charge characteristics of subatomic particles;
- d)families or groups;
- f)trends including atomic radii, electronegativity, shielding effect, and ionization energy;
- g)electron configurations, valence electrons, and oxidation numbers;
- h)chemical and physical properties; and
- i)historical and quantum models.
CH.3 The student will investigate and understand how conservation of energy and matter is expressed in chemical formulas and balanced equations. Key concepts include
- b)balancing chemical equations;
- c)writing chemical formulas;
- d)bonding types;
- e)reaction types; and
- f)reaction rates, kinetics, and equilibrium.
CH.4 The student will investigate and understand that chemical quantities are based on molar relationships. Key concepts include
- a)Avogadro’s principle and molar volume;
- b)stoichiometric relationships;
- c)solution concentrations; and
- d)acid/base theory; strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, and nonelectrolytes; dissociation and ionization; pH and pOH; and the titration process.
CH.5 The student will investigate and understand that the phases of matter are explained by kinetic theory and forces of attraction between particles. Key concepts include
- a)pressure, temperature, and volume;
- b)partial pressure and gas laws;
- c)vapor pressure;
- d)phase changes;
- e)molar heats of fusion and vaporization;
- f)specific heat capacity; and
- g)colligative properties.
CH.6 The student will investigate and understand how basic chemical properties relate to organic chemistry and biochemistry. Key concepts include
- a)unique properties of carbon that allow multi-carbon compounds; and
- b)uses in pharmaceuticals and genetics, petrochemicals, plastics, and food.