Students in grade six apply fundamental skills and knowledge of anatomical structures and movement principles to build movement competence and confidence through acquisition, performance, and refinement of skills. Cooperative and competitive small-group games are appropriate as well as outdoor pursuits, fitness activities, dance and rhythmic activities, aquatics, individual performance activities, and sports (net/wall, striking/fielding, and goal/target), with an emphasis on developing skills and tactical understanding. Students use feedback to initiate and maintain practice to improve skill performance. Students assess their health-related fitness status and set reasonable and appropriate goals for development, maintenance, and improvement. Students in grade six will explain the connection between energy balance and nutrition guidelines, meal planning, and heart rate. Social interaction becomes more complex as peer pressure becomes increasingly pronounced, impacting individual performance. Students solve problems and make responsible decisions as they work together. They identify and seek opportunities to participate in regular physical activity at school and outside the school environment.
Motor Skill Development
6.1 The student will demonstrate and apply mature movement forms in a variety of activities and identify the six components of skill-related fitness.
- Combine and apply mature locomotor and manipulative skills into specialized sequences, to include overhand and underhand throwing and catching, execution to a target, hand and/or foot dribbling, volleying/striking and/or batting ball; and apply sequences, to include change of direction, speed, patterns, pathways, and spatial relationships in partner and small-group modified game-play that includes dynamic and unpredictable situations.
- Create and perform movement sequences in a rhythmic or dance activity.
- Identify the six components of skill-related fitness (agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed).
- Analyze movement situations for direction, speed, accuracy, and pathways to improve performance.
Anatomical Basis of Movement
6.2 The student will apply both movement principles and concepts and knowledge of anatomical structures to movement-skill performance.
- Refine and adapt individual and group activity skills by applying concepts of relationships, effort, spatial awareness, speed, and pathways.
- Apply knowledge of the skeletal system to identify types of joints and associated bones, to include ball-and-socket joint, pivot joint, and hinge joint.
- Apply knowledge of anatomy and joint types to accurately describe a variety of specific movements such as throwing/catching, striking, volleying, and dribbling.
- Describe basic offensive and defensive strategies in noncomplex, modified, and small-sided activities.
6.3 The student will apply skills of measurement, analysis, goal setting, problem solving, and decision making to improve or maintain physical fitness.
- Use measurement and assessment tools and data (e.g., criterion-referenced health-related fitness standards, Internet, software data-management systems, heart-rate monitors, pedometers, skinfold calipers) to complete a self-assessment and develop goals for improvement in at least two fitness components.
- Describe and apply the components of the FITT (frequency, intensity, time, type) principle and their relationship to implementing safe and progressive personal fitness programs for aerobic capacity, muscle fitness, and flexibility.
- Define and calculate resting heart rate (RHR) and describe its relationship to aerobic fitness.
- Describe how being physically active leads to a healthy body.
- Interpret fitness data comparing individual scores to health-related criterion-referenced standards (Virginia wellness-related fitness standards, Fitnessgram®, CDC guidelines).
- Develop a personal fitness plan using baseline data to address one or more components of health-related fitness, to improve or maintain fitness level to include SMART goals, action plan, and documentation of activities inside and outside of school.
- Reassess health-related fitness components and reflect on personal fitness goals at least twice during the school year.
- Describe rate of perceived exertion and identify associated activity levels.
6.4 The student will demonstrate and apply skills of communication, conflict resolution, and cooperation to achieve individual and group goals that apply to working independently and with others in physical activity settings.
- List and demonstrate problem solving, conflict resolution, and decision-making skills.
- Compare and critique rules, safety procedures, and etiquette for two different physical activities.
- Reflect on completion of an improvement plan for a personally challenging skill or activity.
- Describe the benefits of competitive and non-competitive physical activities.
- Demonstrate integrity and apply rules/etiquette for a team-building activity.
- Create and implement strategies, to include others and promote safe participation in physical activities.
6.5 The student will explain the connection between energy balance and nutrition guidelines, meal planning, and exercise intensity.
- Create a one-day meal and snack plan based on Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), portions, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, hydration, sugar, and salt.
- Describe the relationship between resting heart rate and exercise intensity.
- Explain the impact of physical activity guidelines on energy expenditure.
Students in grade seven continue to develop competence in modified versions of various game/sport, rhythmic, and recreational activities. They vary movement during dynamic and unpredictable game situations. Recreational pursuits become an additional curriculum option, broadening lifelong physical activity options. The ability to analyze skill performance through observing and understanding critical elements (small, isolated parts of the whole skill or movement) is increasingly apparent, as is the application of basic scientific principles of anatomical structures, movement principles, energy balance, and personal fitness. Students relate the importance of physical activity to health, focusing particularly on obesity and stress. Students achieve and maintain personal fitness standards and create plans by setting reasonable and appropriate goals for improvement or maintenance of health-related fitness. Students continue to develop social skills and cooperative behaviors by demonstrating problem solving, conflict resolution, communication skills, appropriate etiquette, integrity, and respect for others.
Motor Skill Development
7.1 The student will demonstrate competence and apply movement concepts in modified versions of various game/sport, rhythmic, and recreational activities.
- Demonstrate and apply mature movement forms and skill combinations competently in a variety of cooperative and tactical activities that include dynamic and unpredictable situations.
- Demonstrate offensive strategies and tactics, to include creating open space, skilled movement, speed, accuracy, and selection of appropriate skill/tactic to gain offensive advantage.
- Demonstrate basic abilities and safety precautions in recreational pursuits (e.g., in-line skating, orienteering, hiking, cycling, ropes courses, backpacking, canoeing, rock climbing).
- Create and demonstrate movements appropriate to a variety of rhythm patterns in selected folk, social, world, country, square, contemporary, and line dances.
- Describe and demonstrate how movement is stabilized, to include balance (center of gravity and center of support) and planes of movement.
- Demonstrate the movement learning progression (practice, self or peer assess, correct, practice at a higher level, and reassess) for a specific skill or activity.
Anatomical Basis of Movement
7.2 The student will understand and apply movement principles and concepts and knowledge of major body structures.
- Identify the “core muscles,” to include pelvis, lower back, hips, gluteal muscles, and abdomen, and explain their role in stabilizing movement.
- Apply biomechanical principles (e.g., center of gravity, base of support) to understand and perform skillful movements.
- Describe the planes of motion in which movement occurs, to include sagittal plane, frontal plane, and transverse plane.
- Analyze skill patterns and movement performance of self and others, detecting and correcting mechanical errors and describing balance in the planes of movement for selected movements.
7.3 The student will apply concepts and principles of training and fitness-planning skills to improve physical fitness.
- Identify safe practices for improving physical fitness.
- Complete a self-assessment of health-related fitness and develop a comprehensive personal fitness plan, including SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, timely) goals, action plan that incorporates the FITT (frequency, intensity, time, and type) principle, timeline, documentation of activities inside and outside of school, roadblocks/barriers and solutions, mid-year and end-of-year assessments, and reflection on progress for improving at least three self-selected components of health-related fitness.
- Use a variety of resources, including available technology, to evaluate, monitor, and record activities for fitness improvement.
- Analyze the relationships among physical activity, caloric intake, and body composition.
- Compare and contrast aerobic and anaerobic capacity and muscle strength and endurance.
- Create and implement an activity plan to meet guidelines of 60 minutes a day of moderate to vigorous physical activity.
7.4 The student will demonstrate and apply skills to work independently and with others in physical activity settings.
- Apply safety procedures, rules, and appropriate etiquette in physical activity settings by self-officiating modified physical activities/games.
- Create guidelines and demonstrate how to solve problems and resolve conflicts in activity settings.
- Explain the importance of cooperating with classmates, and demonstrate supportive behaviors that promote the inclusion and safety of others.
- Describe and demonstrate strategies for dealing with stress, such as deep breathing, guided visualization, and aerobic exercise.
- Demonstrate effective communication skills by providing feedback to a peer, using appropriate tone and other communication skills.
- Identify positive mental and emotional aspects of participating in a variety of physical activities.
- Describe how participation in physical activities creates enjoyment.
- Identify specific safety concerns associated with at least one activity that includes rules, equipment, and etiquette.
7.5 The student will describe rate of perceived exertion and nutrients (energy) needed for a variety of activities and explain the importance of sleep for energy balance.
- Describe a Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale.
- Explain the connection between an RPE scale and heart rate, and the body’s response to physical activity.
- Define and describe the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems.
- Identify the nutrients needed for optimal aerobic and anaerobic capacity and for muscle strength and endurance.
- Create a snack plan including foods and beverages consumed before, during, and after a self-selected vigorous physical activity addressing nutrition needs for each phase and explaining the impact on and relationship to RDA, portions, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, hydration, sugar, and salt.
- Calculate resting heart rate (RHR) and describe its relationship to aerobic fitness and an RPE scale.
- Explain the importance of sleep for energy balance.
- Explain energy balance and how it leads to a healthy body.
Students in grade eight demonstrate competence in skillful movement in modified, dynamic game/sport situations and in a variety of rhythmic and recreational activities. They transition from modified versions of movement forms to more complex applications across all types of activities. The grade-eight student applies knowledge of major body structures to explain how body systems interact with and respond to physical activity and how structures help the body create movement. Students will explain the relationship between nutrition, activity, and body composition to deepen understanding of energy balance. They will demonstrate socially responsible behavior as they show respect for others, make reasoned and appropriate choices, resist negative peer pressure, and exhibit integrity and fair play to achieve individual and group goals in the physical activity setting. Students are able to set goals, track progress, and participate in physical activities to improve health-related fitness. They have a repertoire of abilities across a variety of game/sport, dance, and recreational pursuits and begin to develop competence in specialized versions of lifelong game/sport activities.
Motor Skill Development
8.1 The student will apply and demonstrate movement concepts and skills in modified versions of various game/sport, rhythmic, and recreational activities.
- Demonstrate and apply movement forms to a variety of cooperative and tactical activities that include dynamic and unpredictable situations with a focus on defensive strategies, to include reducing space, transitioning from offense to defense quickly, communicating with teammates, and selecting appropriate tactics to gain defensive advantage.
- Create a rhythmic movement sequence to music as an individual or in a group.
- Demonstrate skill-related components of fitness (agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time, and speed) specific to a variety of activities.
- Apply and demonstrate biomechanical principles of force, motion (laws of motion), rotation, and energy.
- Demonstrate balance (center of support and center of gravity) in a variety of activities.
- Demonstrate physiological principles of warm-up, cool down, overload, specificity, and progression to improve performance.
- Demonstrate use of technology tools to analyze and improve performance.
- Describe how movement is created in activities that involve agility, power, coordination, reaction time, speed, force, motion, rotation, and energy.
- Explain the role of balance (center of support, center of gravity, planes of movement) in creating movement.
- Analyze movement performance and utilize feedback to learn or improve the movement skills of self and others.
Anatomical Basis of Movement
8.2 The student will apply movement principles and concepts and apply knowledge of major body structures to explain how body systems interact and respond to physical activity and movement.
- Explain how body systems interact with one another during physical activity.
- Identify and describe biomechanical principles (e.g., spin, rebound, effects of levers) to understand skillful movements.
- Explain how offensive and defensive tactics and strategies are used to gain an advantage offensively and defensively.
- Analyze performance in a variety of selected skills/activities using movement concepts of agility, power, coordination, reaction time, speed, force, motion, rotation, and energy of self and partner.
- Analyze movement progressions (practice, self or peer assess, correct, practice at a higher level, and reassess) of a specific skill and utilize feedback to improve the movement skills of self
- Describe effects of exercise/activity on physical movement, body systems, and brain development.
- Describe how muscles move bones to create paired movement by relaxing and contracting.
- Identify types of joints and associated movements, to include ball and socket (flexion/extension), pivot (rotation of one bone around another), and hinge (flexion/extension).
- Apply knowledge of anatomy to accurately describe movements in relation to type of joint and associated movement/motion, associated bones and muscles, and type of muscle contraction.
8.3 The student will apply self-assessment skills and use technology to create and implement a personal fitness plan to improve or maintain personal fitness.
- Self-assess level of physical activity and personal fitness on all components of health-related fitness, including body composition, and develop a plan, including SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, timely) goals, and action-plan strategies that include documentation of activities, mid-year and end-of-year assessments, reflection on progress, and timeline for maintenance or improvement.
- Define and describe specificity, overload, and progression in relation to improving personal fitness.
- Demonstrate use of technology tools to assess, monitor/record, and improve personal fitness.
- Create and implement an activity plan to meet physical activity guidelines of 60 minutes a day that includes warm-up, cool down, and appropriate intensity levels.
- Monitor heart rate before, during, and after moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA).
8.4 The student will describe and apply a variety of social and safety skills to achieve individual and group goals in a variety of physical activity settings.
- Describe and demonstrate best practices for participating safely in physical activity, exercise, and dance (e.g., injury prevention, proper alignment, hydration, use of equipment, implementation of rules, sun protection).
- Describe and demonstrate appropriate encouragement and feedback to peers without prompting from the teacher.
- Identify and demonstrate proper etiquette, respect for others, integrity, and teamwork while engaging in physical activity and/or social dance.
- Demonstrate basic movements used in stress-reducing activities (e.g., yoga, Pilates, tai chi).
- Apply communication skills and strategies that promote team/group dynamics.
- Describe and demonstrate conflict-resolution skills.
- Apply problem solving skills in cooperative and dynamic physical activities and/or dance settings.
- Analyze and compare social and emotional benefits of participation in a variety of activities.
- Identify opportunities for social interaction through physical activity in the community.
8.5 The student will explain the relationship of caloric intake, caloric expenditure, and body composition.
- Describe the relationship between poor caloric intake and health risk factors.
- Explain the role of energy balance in weight management and body composition.
- Describe types of body-composition measures and demonstrate appropriate use of one measure.
- Explain a Rate of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale and how it relates to energy expenditure.
- Describe how an RPE scale can be used to adjust workout intensity during physical activity.
- Describe the body’s physiological responses to warm-ups and cool downs.
- Identify activities that use the anaerobic and aerobic energy systems.
- Create a one-week meal plan, including snacks and physical activity, based on Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA), portions, macronutrients, vitamins, minerals, hydration, sugar, and salt.